Corporate Accounting

What is the Buyback of Shares? Purpose and Benefits

Within finance and investing, companies employ many strategies and techniques to increase shareholder value and optimize capital structures.

One such technique is known as share buyback repurchase: this practice sees companies purchase their outstanding shares either from open market sellers or shareholders directly at discounted rates.

We will explore why and what are the benefits associated with stock buybacks so as to understand their effects on a company and their stakeholders.

What is Share Buyback?

A share buyback occurs when a company buys back its own shares to reduce the number of outstanding ones on the market, either directly from existing shareholders or on an open market. This effectively reduces the total number of shares available to investors.

A key objective behind stock buyback is returning excess cash back to shareholders while signalling confidence in company prospects and controlling capital structure issues.

Companies typically engage in share buybacks when they believe their stock to be undervalued, purchasing shares at prices lower than their intrinsic value to reallocate resources efficiently and maximize shareholder wealth creation. They can also adjust their capital structure by decreasing equity capital outstanding.

Purpose of Share Buybacks

Capital Optimization: Share buybacks enable companies to optimize their capital structure by decreasing outstanding shares, thus improving key financial ratios such as earnings per share (EPS), return on equity (ROE) and return on assets (ROA). By decreasing equity bases, businesses may increase financial leverage and potentially improve profitability.

Share buybacks provide a way for companies to return excess funds directly back to shareholders rather than keeping reserves or investing them into projects with uncertain returns. In turn, shareholders benefit by increasing ownership percentage and potentially driving the stock price higher.

Signalling Mechanism: Share buybacks can serve as a signal from management that they believe the future prospects for their company are bright. Announcement of such buyback plans sends out positive signals in the market and shows investors they believe their stock to be underpriced – potentially inspiring confidence among investors and potentially drawing in new shareholders.

Tax Benefit: Share buybacks may provide shareholders with tax advantages when compared with dividends. When companies purchase back shares from investors, shareholders have an opportunity to sell at a later date and realize a capital gain; delaying tax liability until then allows shareholders to possibly benefit from lower capital gains tax rates when selling.

What Are the Benefits of Share Buybacks?

Owner Value: By decreasing the outstanding shares, share buybacks concentrate earnings among fewer shareholders – thus increasing earnings per share and making each more valuable for existing owners who may experience an increase in holdings’ values as a result of such buybacks.

Increased Stock Price: Share buybacks have the power to boost share prices. When companies buy back their shares, this reduces supply on the market and puts upward pressure on price; drawing investor attention and potentially drawing in new investors who view rising share values as positive indicators of investment potential.

Capital Allocation Flexibility: The process of share repurchase offers companies considerable capital allocation flexibility. If a firm believes its shares are undervalued, investing in them rather than seeking alternative opportunities allows the organization to adapt quickly to shifting market conditions while allocating its resources more strategically.

Avoidance of Dilution: Share buybacks can help companies avoid diluting existing shareholders’ ownership stake by issuing new shares that dilute the ownership percentage of existing holders; by purchasing back shares to offset any such dilation caused by employee stock options or convertible securities, however.

How are buybacks executed?

There are two main ways in which a company may buy back their shares:

Open market purchases: An open market share buyback is when a company repurchases its own outstanding shares directly from the stock exchange, rather than through a tender offer. This means the company doesn’t set a specific price beforehand; instead,

Tender offers: A tender offer share buyback is a specific method companies use to repurchase their own outstanding shares from shareholders at a predetermined price and within a set timeframe. Following is the typical process of tender offer share buyback:

Company announces the offer: The company publicly announces its intention to buy back a specific number of shares at a specific price within a set period. This announcement includes details like the minimum and maximum number of shares they’re willing to buy and the eligibility criteria for shareholders to participate.

Shareholders tender their shares: Shareholders who wish to sell their shares submit “tenders” indicating the number of shares they want to sell. They may also specify a price at which they’re willing to sell, but the company ultimately determines the final purchase price.

Company evaluates tenders: The company assesses the received tenders and may choose to accept all, some, or none of them, depending on factors like the total number of shares tendered and the desired outcome.

Settlement: If the company accepts a shareholder’s tender, the shares are transferred to the company, and the shareholder receives the agreed-upon price.


Companies utilise the buyback of shares as an essential strategic financial instrument to increase shareholder value, optimize capital structure, and signal confidence in their prospects. Reducing outstanding shares allows businesses to increase earnings per share and potentially drive up stock prices, with additional advantages including cash distribution, tax efficiency and flexibility when allocating capital allocation. Share buybacks provide numerous additional advantages including cash distribution and capital allocation flexibility.

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