Corporate Accounting

Liquidation of Companies | Meaning and Procedure

The liquidation of companies refers to the process of winding down operations and selling its assets to pay off its debts to external parties.

It is essentially the process of dissolving a company and distributing its remaining assets to its creditors and shareholders.

Reasons for liquidation

There are several reasons why a company might be liquidated, including:

  • Insolvency: This is the most common reason for liquidation. It occurs when a company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due.
  • Loss of profitability: A company may choose to liquidate if it is no longer profitable and there is no prospect of turning things around.
  • Change of ownership: A company may be liquidated as part of a merger or acquisition.
  • Voluntary closure: The owners of a company may decide to close the business for personal reasons.

Types of liquidation

There are two main types of liquidation:

  • Voluntary liquidation: This occurs when the directors of a company decide to liquidate the business. There are two types of voluntary liquidation:
    • Members’ voluntary liquidation: This is used when a company is solvent, meaning that it is able to pay its debts.
    • Creditors’ voluntary liquidation: This is used when a company is insolvent.
  • Compulsory liquidation: This occurs when a court orders a company to be liquidated. This can happen if a company is unable to pay its debts or if it is acting fraudulently.

Procedure for liquidation

The procedure for liquidation will vary depending on the type of liquidation and the jurisdiction in which the company is located. However, there are some general steps that are common to most liquidations:

  1. The decision to liquidate is made. This could be made by the directors of the company, a creditor, or a court.
  2. A liquidator is appointed. The liquidator is responsible for overseeing the liquidation process.
  3. The company’s assets are valued. This will help to determine how much money is available to pay off the company’s debts.
  4. The company’s assets are sold. The liquidator will sell the company’s assets in order to raise cash.
  5. The company’s debts are paid. The money raised from the sale of the company’s assets will be used to pay off the company’s debts.
  6. The company is dissolved. Once all of the company’s debts have been paid, the company will be dissolved.

Impact of liquidation

The liquidation of a company can have a significant impact on its employees, customers, suppliers, and creditors.

  • Employees: Employees may lose their jobs as a result of the liquidation.
  • Customers: Customers may be unable to obtain the products or services that they need.
  • Suppliers: Suppliers may be left unpaid for the goods or services that they have provided to the company.
  • Creditors: Creditors may only receive a portion of the money that they are owed.


The liquidation of a company is a complex process that can have a significant impact on many different stakeholders. It is important to understand the reasons for liquidation, the types of liquidation, and the procedure for liquidation in order to make informed decisions about a company’s future.

Show More

Leave a Reply