Goodwill is an intangible asset that represents the value of a business’s reputation, customer base, brand recognition, and other non-physical assets.
Valuing goodwill can be challenging because it does not have a physical existence or a straightforward way to measure its worth. However, it is an essential element in determining the overall value of a business.
Goodwill is valued based on the valuer’s assumptions. The methods used to value goodwill vary according to the facts of each case and are frequently based on industry conventions.
There are five methods of valuation of goodwill which have been explained below:
- Average maintainable profits method
- Super profit method
- Capitalisation method
- Annuity method
- Hidden method
Average Maintainable Profit Method
Under this method, average profit means the average profits of actual profits of the past three to five years, depending upon the nature of the business. The average of actual profits must be adjusted in the light of future events that may affect future profits, so this method is also known as “future maintainable profits”.
Under this method, we can calculate the value of goodwill by multiplying the average future maintainable profits by a certain number of years. The following formula is used for calculating the value of goodwill:
Steps:- In the first step, we have to calculate the average maintainable profits for the past few years are as follows-
Average maintainable profits= Total adjusted profits / No. Of year
Step:- Calculate the Value of goodwill by using the following formula:
Goodwill= Average maintainable profits x Number of years purchased.
To calculate the total adjusted profits, the following adjustments should be made to the profits.
- Any abnormal losses such as strikes, floods, accidents etc., added back to the past profits.
- Any uncommon profits should be deducted from past profits.
- Interest, remuneration, commission etc. should be adjusted.
- The past average profits should be calculated after deducting tax at current rates.
Example of Average Profit Method of Goodwill Calculation
1st April 2017 on the admission of a new partner, it is agreed that the goodwill of the firm is valued at three years purchase of average profits for the last five years. Further, suppose the profits for the last five years have been as follows:
|For the year ended 31st March 2017||10,740|
|For the year ended 31st March 2016||7,900|
|For the year ended 31st March 2015||5,430|
|For the year ended 31st March 2014||(400) – Loss|
|For the year ended 31st March 2003||8500|
The goodwill will be computed as follows:
Total profits for the last five years = 10,740+7,900+5,430+(400)+8,500 =32,170
Average Profit = 32170/5 = 6434
Three years’ purchase of the above-mentioned average profit= 6434 x 3 = 19,302
Thus, the value of Goodwill = ₹19,302
Super Profits Method
The super profit method of valuation of goodwill is one of the most popular methods of valuation of Goodwill. Under the super-profit method, the value of goodwill is based on super-profits. Super profits are the profits earned above the normal profits, i.e. excess of the actual profits over the normal profits.
For calculating the value of goodwill, the following formula should be followed:-
Super Profits = Actual Profits – Normal Profits
Normal Profits = Capital Invested X Normal rate of return/100
Goodwill = Super Profits x No. of years purchased
under this method, the value of goodwill is calculated in two ways such as-
- The Capitalisation of Average Profits Method
- Capitalisation Super Profits Method
a. The Capitalisation of Average Profit Method
In this method, goodwill is the surplus capitalised value of the firm’s average profit over its actual capital employed. The formula for calculating the value of goodwill under the capitalisation of average profits method is as follows-
Goodwill = Capitalised Value of Average Profits – Capital Employed
Capitalised Value of Average Profits = Average Profits X (100 / Normal Rate of Return)
Capital Employed = Assets – Liabilities
b. The Capitalisation of Super Profits
For calculating the value of goodwill, the formula is as follows-
|Goodwill = Super Profits X (100/ Normal Rate of Return)|
Example: The adjusted forecast maintainable profit is ₹40,000, capital employed is ₹200,000, the normal rate of return is 15%, and the capitalisation rate is 20%.
Here the value of goodwill shall be = [40,000 – (200,000 x 15%)] / 20%
Under this method, goodwill is calculated by taking the average of the super profit as the value of an annuity over a certain number of years. The present value of the above annuity is discounted at the given rate of interest (the normal rate of return is the value of the goodwill. Following is the formula to calculate goodwill under the annuity method:
Goodwill = Super profits per annum x Relevant annuity value
Hidden goodwill, also known as internally generated goodwill, is the goodwill that is not recognised on a company’s balance sheet because it was not acquired. Instead, it is derived from the company’s reputation, customer base, brand awareness, and other intangible assets.
According to accounting principles, internally generated goodwill cannot be recognised on a company’s balance sheet since it is difficult to measure and cannot be properly valued. Hence, it is often referred to as “hidden goodwill” because it is not easily apparent in the financial statements of a company.
The goodwill that is not reflected on the balance sheet might have significant worth and impact a company’s overall valuation. Analysts and investors may consider a company’s hidden goodwill when evaluating its financial health and future growth prospects.
Under the hidden goodwill method, the value of goodwill is calculated based on capital contributed by the partners and their respective shares in the firm.
First of all, find out the total capital of the firm by using the formula:-
- Total capital= New partner capital * Reverse of new partner’s share
- Deduct from the total capital, the combined capital of all the partners
- Balance is the value of goodwill
In other words, Hidden Goodwill = Sundry Debtors – Outsiders’ Liabilities.
I hope you understand how to calculate goodwill using various methods of valuation of goodwill.