What is an Expense?
Expenses may be defined as the cost of service provided to an entity and the notional cost of the use of owned assets. Expenses such as material costs and labour wages can be direct or indirect.
In manufacturing, direct expenses include the cost of raw materials, direct labour and overheads. In service industries, direct expenses include staff costs, premises costs and any other costs directly associated with providing the service.
Direct expenses are usually easy to identify and trace to specific products or services. They are, therefore an important element in the costing of goods and services.
If you are a business owner, it is important to understand the concept of direct expenses so that you can accurately track the costs of your goods or services. This information can then be used to price your products or services competitively.
Direct Expenses (or Chargeable Expenses)
Direct expenses are costs that are associated with producing a product or providing a service. Direct expenses can be used to calculate the cost of goods sold (COGS) or operating expenses.
In other words, all expenses identified to a particular cost centre and hence directly charged to the centre are known as direct expenses. In other words, all expenses (other than direct materials and direct labour ) explicitly incurred for a particular product, job, department etc., are called direct expenses.
These expenses are directly charged to the product. Examples of such expenses ate royalty, excise duty, hire charges of a specific plant and equipment, cost of any experimental works carried out specifically for a particular job, travelling expenses incurred in connection with a specific contract or job etc.
Some common examples of direct expenses are as follows:
- Cost of patents and royalty payments
- Hire charges in respect of special machinery and plant
- Cost of unique patterns, designs and tools
- Experimental cost and expenditure in connection with model and pilot projects
- Architects’, surveyors’ and other consultants’ fees
- Travelling expenses to sites
- Inward charges and freight charges on special material
A direct expense in relation to a particular product or job is included in the prime cost. However, direct expenses in relation to cost centres are treated as overheads as far as cost units are concerned.
Direct expenses are important in cost accounting because they help businesses track the specific costs associated with producing a product or service. This information can be used to make pricing and production decisions. For example, if a company finds that the direct expenses associated with producing a widget are $5 per unit, the company can make the decision to sell the widget for a price that covers the direct expenses and also includes a profit margin.